You understand that I’m not refuting that point right? The point is that even if the BIOS is infected with a rootkit it can be removed by flashing the BIOS which is something you should always do if you need to reformat due to a suspected infection. Marcus Hodges wasn’t the one who figured out what a rootkit is lol. You specifically said “this attack”. This is barring the fact that rootkits are generally always created by state actors who either want to hold your drive hostage, or use it in a botnet. If somehow the rootkit is infecting other UEFI you can just.. remove that piece of hardware.
Have strong passwords for both BIOS and the OS. Bonus points if you encrypt your HDD. Don't store any keys/passwords on it. Have those on a different device, or at least a flash drive. Use a different device for 2FA, bonus points if you use a device that stays in a secure location and is used for nothing else.
Yeah, I don't belive that Banks in general are the slowest movers when it comes to new technology. These are large and old legacy systems and many core systems still look like BIOS Investment banks will probably start offering crypto to their clients but commercial banking and crypto payment systems won't come for years But before any of this happens, we need regulation as the banks are one of the most regulated entities and won't be implementing these system on their own
>Opening sketchy files on VMs is totally fine, no need to use a separate device. Escaping a VM is about as impossible as compromising the BIOS. This is absolutely untrue. Sandbox and VM escapes aren't super common, but are FAR away from impossible. We are talking, a few exploits every year at least. Literally just 10 second of googling: [Quick find of an exploit from 2015](https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2015/05/14/the-venom-virtual-machine-escape-bug-what-you-need-to-know/) [An exploit from 2017](https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2017/03/hack-that-escapes-vm-by-exploiting-edge-browser-fetches-105000-at-pwn2own/) [10 collective exploits from 2018](https://www.techrepublic.com/article/10-new-vm-escape-vulnerabilities-discovered-in-virtualbox/) According to quick look thru previous CVEs, there have been exploits at least in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020.
An extremely motivated attacker could compromise firmware/BIOS/etc. But this is extremely unlikely unless you are a very high value target, as these exploits are expensive (as in expensive to find, develop, or buy) and will not be thrown away on average targets as every use risks discovery and thus the end of the exploit.
Some poor-mans tips in case these are too expensive for some people: * Formatting the hard drive and reinstalling the OS from a live USB will be fine in 99.9% of cases. Buying a new device is overkill for most users because compromising the BIOS is damn near impossible nowadays. * A dedicated Tails USB is almost as good as a hardware wallet (it's second best if you can't afford hardware). * Opening sketchy files on VMs is totally fine, no need to use a separate device. Escaping a VM is about as impossible as compromising the BIOS.
Honestly one would think he would at least be able to provide *convincing* fake documents. How hard can this be? Get a copy of any OS from before the release of BTC whitepaper. Set BIOS clock of your computer to before the release of BTC whitepaper. Install OS, never connect to the internet. Create your PDF with whatever content you like, save, done. Anyone with just a tiny bit of know how can pull this off in an hour or two. This is precisely why stuff like "but my PDF got a timestamp from then!" is worth absolutely nothing in court. No one with the slightest clue would ever see that as convincing proof. There was no sense in trying to fake this from the beginning, this makes failing while trying to fake it and getting caught in the process soo much dumber.
I mean... Your OS could be bugged, your BIOS could be bugged You have to install a bitcoin wallet to that PC and be able to update it so if it's through a USB stick then that's another attack vector Someone could steal the laptop, hack into it, and gain access Someone could install a keylogger and you'd never know
The blockchain itself and pritocol is tough,but everything else leaks due to NSA/CIA stuff.....as with Tor. Those guys work at UEFI/bootloader+hardware level. Even if your miner runs Linux they can launch a zero day attack on all miners and compose back the data if they'd truly want. Intel Managemant Engine is full of holes,so is AMD's version,there are post-production fuses in hardware to ebable or disable "certain features" for consumers vs goverment and so on. Lenovo was caught red handed having capabilities to run code at kernel level by doing BIOS updates , capability that is persistent no matter what you do.
This. An air-gaped laptop running TailsOS or Ubuntu is super secure and cheap. Remove the hard drive and Wifi card if you're paranoid, or disable it in the BIOS. Works with Electrum, Sparrow wallet, the [Mnemonic Code Converter](https://iancoleman.io/bip39/), Bitcoin Core, and many other popular software tools.
You can remove the hard drive and plugging it into a new computer. You can get USB to SATA (hard drive to USB) enclosures for $15 online. You should be able to view all files and extract what you're interested in that way. Or you can download a version of Linux (Ubuntu is friendly) onto a USB stick or other drive. When you boot the locked PC press one of the F-keys to open the BIOS menu before it gets a chance to load Windows, then have it boot from USB instead of its normal drive. This will circumvent the Windows login screen but the partition with your files is still accessible to move to USB or whatever you plan to do with it. Good luck 🤞 Shouldn't be too hard if your mom didn't go *out of her way* to encrypt everything
A hardware wallet is much more secure than a general purpose computer, online or air-gapped. A person would have to completely fail to understand how they work to call them gimmicky. OP: Ignore advice contrary to best practices. Never, ever, ever type your mnemonic phrase into a general purpose computer. Ever. Read up on BIOS rootkits and Stuxnet if you want to understand why air-gapping is not a complete solution and what role hardware wallets serve in a rigorous security protocol. If you are storing an amount of money that would devastate you to lose, you want multisig (at least 2-of-3 h each individual key saved in its own hardware wallet and paper or metal backup.
Most laptops have wifi antennas press-fit onto a separate wifi card that fits into a PCIe bus slot. You can either unclip the antennas or remove the card and antennas. It's no more a perfect solution than the Pi, however. If someone sneaks into your apartment while you're asleep, reprograms the BIOS, sneaks out, and lets you Bitcoin for a few days, they can then come back and steal the machine with all your passwords. As just one example of the many possibilities. Also, Bluetooth. Gotta kill that too. Pi Zero with wifi antenna cut out is probably your safest bet, since the Pi has no onboard reprogrammable BIOS that someone could sabotage. As long as an attacker doesn't sneak in at night, install software on your microSD card, let you use it for a few days, then sneak in and steal it, of course. You'd have to do fresh installs from trusted sources before every use to get around that. And even then, they could just kidnap you and use a $15 wrench (thanks for the inflation, Biden) to beat your passwords out of you.
Get an old Thinkpad with an i5 Intel CPU(x230 is a good model I believe). Wipe it and then put Linux on it (QubesOS if you want to go one step further). Then you can also replace the BIOS as well if you want another layer of tinfoil hat. Check out heads or another coreboot implementation that suites your needs. https://osresearch.net/
The user doesn't have to trust the software which is pre-loaded onto the device The user is able to load a fresh copy from a binary package provided by the developer. A diligent developer recognizes the principle of reproducible build. He provides a public copy of the source code, and instructions to build the binary package from that source code, such that following the instructions creates a package which is byte-identical to the distributed binary package There's a bootstrapping problem in that the binary package is usually loaded via a USB port and requires permanent ROM containing the loader This is similar to the PC problem of trusting the BIOS - you can't trust a PC BIOS, even they phone home If you're using mass-market commodity hardware, there are devices which load the loader from the first partition of whatever is plugged into the SD or USB socket. The loader can be made so small that its binary can be audited directly. See https://guix.gnu.org/ In that vein, a user can buy a Raspberry Pi Zero, put a loader on partition 0 of a microSD, operating system and application software on partition 1, after verifying that the loader is harmless and the software hashes match reproducible build hashes All the software source code for the Trezor hardware wallets is published. A user can build an ARM binary from the Trezor source and install it on a Raspberry Pi
Well, fuck me dead! I do remember reading something, some time ago about viruses / malware coming back from the dead via compromised BIOS / bootloaders / recovery partitions. This vector never occurred to me as being a possibility, since all my productive machines are VMs. I do need to take special care of the hosts / hypervisor though, so thanks for the reminder. The take a look at the "zero click attacks". This seems like a can of worms with the dimensions of the Tardis. Thanks for extra detail. We should all be aware of these things.
Normally it requires the owner to give away access to their machine, or connect to a compromised network. However, there are more advanced ways to target someone .. the reality is, most people aren't valuable enough of a target for the more complex attack vectors. If you're interested in it, you can look up 'zero click attacks'. They normally exploit bugs in software that allow some kind of communication between devices, it's likely that you would not be aware that your device is infected until it's too late. Devices can also come shipped with a backdoor, there is evidence that Chinese hackers have installed malware into the BIOS of machines that can completely circumvent AV and reinstall itself even after you wipe your drives and use a clean, new OS version.
Thanks for the post. I've never tried tails myself, does it work completely offline? (once loaded) does it come with a software to generate private keys/wallets? > But that requires trusing there isn't some kind of malware hiding in EFI or BIOS and the Intel ME / AMD PSP secure zones. how common are these? are there documented cases of these malware being used succesfully?
Take it from an IT guy. Raspberry Pi 4 is garbage. They don't have a real BIOS. I've had two of them fail in less than a year because of issues with the 5V power supply to the USB 3.0 ports. Never had that issue with Pi 3. 15.1W on the official power supply for Pi4 isn't enough power IMO. I bet it was the SSD and USB adapter that kept frying it. I went with a normal mini PC that uses 24w of power. No more issues since then. Much cheaper than a Pi 4 kit. Beelink mini PC - quad core Celeron, 8GB ram, 128GB m.2 ssd. [https://www.amazon.com/Beelink-Processor-Desktop-Computers-Ethernet/dp/B09ZLBDVZD/ref=sr\_1\_5?crid=2MB3HDX37B69D&keywords=beelink%2Bmini%2Bpc%2B128gb&qid=1654266494&sprefix=beelink%2Bmini%2Bpc%2B128gb%2Caps%2C69&sr=8-5&th=1](https://www.amazon.com/Beelink-Processor-Desktop-Computers-Ethernet/dp/B09ZLBDVZD/ref=sr_1_5?crid=2MB3HDX37B69D&keywords=beelink%2Bmini%2Bpc%2B128gb&qid=1654266494&sprefix=beelink%2Bmini%2Bpc%2B128gb%2Caps%2C69&sr=8-5&th=1) Crucial 1TB sata ssd [https://www.amazon.com/Crucial-BX500-NAND-2-5-Inch-Internal/dp/B07YD579WM/ref=sr\_1\_8?crid=1L55LSMVY607P&keywords=1tb+ssd&qid=1654266642&sprefix=1tb+ssd%2Caps%2C84&sr=8-8](https://www.amazon.com/Crucial-BX500-NAND-2-5-Inch-Internal/dp/B07YD579WM/ref=sr_1_8?crid=1L55LSMVY607P&keywords=1tb+ssd&qid=1654266642&sprefix=1tb+ssd%2Caps%2C84&sr=8-8) That's it. I installed Xubuntu (it's faster and uses less resources than normal Ubuntu). Took out the 128GB m.2 ssd, installed the the 1TB sata ssd (you could go m.2 as well, I already had the ssd). Once Xubuntu is installed, use SNAP to install Bitcoin Core. [https://www.cyberithub.com/how-to-install-and-setup-bitcoin-core-on-ubuntu-20-04-lts/](https://www.cyberithub.com/how-to-install-and-setup-bitcoin-core-on-ubuntu-20-04-lts/) Takes a few days to sync up the blockchain. But that's it. Very simple, low power system that is more powerful, more reliable, and cheaper than those rip-off Raspberry Pi's, but no noticeable difference in power usage. The fan can be a little annoying, so place it where you can't here it.
For me, I joined the navy at 18 as a nuclear reactor operator specialized as a electronics technician. When I got out I started college for mechanical engineering, but very quickly got fed up with the culture and decided to work instead. If you are interested then I would think about whether you prefer working as a 'DCO' on server related items of if you prefer the more manual work of engineering operations. Engineering operations will likely pay better, getting a job as a DCO will likely be easier. Second step is finding a place to work, LinkedIn is king of course. Recruiters like ZT systems and TEK systems will find you a job, but their help comes at a cost to your pay or benefits; this could take the form of a 3-6 month contract after which the host company hires you, or it could take the form of you being contracted out to whatever company needs you and you are stuck without a permenant job. I'd definitely recommend a contract to hire, but depending on the deal it can make sense to remain a contractor, sometimes a contractor sells proprietary hardware and contracts service techs, that can be a decent job. If you are looking for study topics as a DCO, go rebuild your PC a couple times and surf around the BIOS a bit. If you want to get into engineering operations, I'd recommend starting with the HVAC cycle, adiabatic cooling, 3 phase power generation/transformers, and how a diesel generator works.
True, but if I don't trust 99% of people to touch command prompt. Why would I trust them to not screw up their PC? I think the majority of people would want to stay away from getting into that level because of fear, they don't have the ability to recover from a problem, and they don't really have anyone to lean on if a problem does come up. **It's easier to just say, go to this site to download this, go to this other site and get the pool info, put your wallet info in, then click the button to start mining.** ​ Like I can go into the weeds, but I wanted to make this as user friendly as possible. Otherwise I would have to explain how to underclock to a bunch of people who most likely don't know what a BIOS is.
Get a computer that has been wiped completely clean of all hardware BIOS configurations and all OS and reinstalled from the ground up. DO NOT connect this computer to the internet. Now get a thumb drive, put the seed phrase on it and then encrypt the thumb drive. Disconnect it from the computer and store it somewhere safe. If you ever need to retrieve the seed from it, connect it only to a computer that has been completely wiped clean as described above and never connected to the internet. Never use this USB drive on any internet connected device.
Aww man. I still couldn't believe my eyes when I went down to Best Buy and got a 128 GB (! not MB!) drive for $35 Then again I still remember having to partition a Windows 3.11 hard disk several times to get around BIOS addressing limitations back in the early 90s, so... Times have changed indeed!
tldr; The “N Nvidia LHR v2 Unlocker” is yet unreleased BIOS modification tool that unlocks the mining performance of Nvidia’s Lite Hash Rate (LHR) models by modifying BIOSes detected by mining operating systems such as HiveOS. The software has not yet been released and has not been tested. It requires a special driver that has to be downloaded from a private server. *This summary is auto generated by a bot and not meant to replace reading the original article. As always, DYOR.*
Well that's exactly where I heard about it, I think I just read it this morning. People would rather buy chips that aren't supposed to let you mine and change the BIOS instead of buying mining specific chips. But it also could have something to do with the chip shortage and everything is bought, I don't know enough about it.
I see it more like operating system. Etherium's Is Windows with other coins working on top of it like programs. Other block chains such as cardano, polygon or dot would be your Linux, safari etc which themselves can have programs (dapps) running on them. I guess Bitcoin is like BIOS that nothing else runs on but are all worth f.a. if it crashes.
>but a core difference is the specialized hardware (which iirc from a talk from Dominic you need to get approval to acquire). There is no such thing as specialized hardware. It is merely standardized (and standard) hardware, to ensure consistent performance across all replicas on a subnet. I.e. you are only as fast as the 2/3+1 fastest (e.g. 9th out of 13) replica, and this assumes all replicas are healthy and up to date. If a couple of them are temporarily down, a subnet is only as hast as the 3rd slowest replica. If anyone can bring their own random hardware (and some only have a couple of allocated CPU cores, some only have 16 GB of RAM, etc.) you are down to the lowest common denominator (i.e. 2 CPU cores and 16 GB of ram), no matter that on average replicas have 60 cores and 512 GB of RAM. You don't need any approval to buy anything, these are DELL and SuperMicro servers you can buy off the shelf. They are expensive (somewhere in the 5 digits range AFAIK) and you need 10 GB worth of bandwidth, so you basically must run them in a DC, not under your desk, but that's all there is to it. The other reason for this standardized hardware is that for both security and efficiency reasons, whole OS images are deployed to these machines and even their hardware is configured in a standardized way (at the BIOS level, but remotely and it has some fancy name). So if you had only equivalent hardware, it may be difficult (or impossible) to configure it the way the software expects it to be configured. Presumably given time and a lot of effort, one could imagine a whole bunch of equivalent hardware configurations being supported. It's just that no one had the time to do it in the run up to Genesis or since.
Download a copy of a Linux Distro (Ubuntu for example) Download a Linux Pendrive software (pendrivelinux.com etc) Install the Linux OS on a USB memory stick with that software Enter BIOS when rebooting your computer and choose to boot from the USB
tldr; CryptoDonkeyMiner has confirmed that his Inno3D GeForce RTX 3080 Ti iCHILL X3 graphics card was firmware flashed with the BIOS from the higher-end EVGA XC3 BIOS and had a huge boost in performance. He went from around 77 MH/s to 90MH/s+ with the upgrade. Beyond that, he was able to push up to a huge 110 *This summary is auto generated by a bot and not meant to replace reading the original article. As always, DYOR.*
Probably. And if you just perform the BIOS update and nothing else, it might work well enough. But as soon as you start overclocking the card (and common, can you really buy such expensive cards and not overclock them), you're pretty much guaranteed to brick the card, because it will allow you to overclock further than you're supposed to.
Maybe it's okay for mining, I have no idea how GPU mining actually works, but definitely not something to do with a 3080 TI if you use it for anything else. The BIOS has safety measures in it designed for that specific card, and a 3080 TI is just not meant to perform like a 3090. A good way to brick your card.
tldr; EVGA has provided a BIOS update for its custom-cooled EVGA RTX 3080 Ti LHR card to solve the power lock issue during the mining process. Red Panda Miner was able to unlock 91MH/s whopping hashrate performance from own EVGA card successfully. The best settings for HiveOS mining according to Red Panda Mining include lock core clock at 1200MHz and memory clock at 2600MHz. *This summary is auto generated by a bot and not meant to replace reading the original article. As always, DYOR.*
"Hardware" wallets are small electronic devices tailored to run crypto wallet applications. They are also typically created with very limited communication interfaces. A Ledger is just a specialized embedded device. Your phone or computer can be generally be thought to be a "generalist" device, despite your phone being essentially an embedded device as well. Probably your computer too, if you make that argument from the basis of BIOS. But the main use case of these generalist devices is to offer you a wide variety of communication interfaces, and the capability to run pretty much any kind of applications you want. And these applications and interfaces are possible vulnerable. They have been, many many times. And when a device is compromised like that, your wallet is in danger. This obviously theoretically could happen to your Ledger, but the probability of that is very, very, very low. (I won't say "doesn't exist" after Israel hacked Iranian lab equipment.)
tldr; A BIOS update for EVGA’s version of the Nvidia RTX 3080ti LHR graphics card has unlocked 21% more hashrate for ETH miners. ETH miners can now enjoy around 80 MH/s, a hashrate boost of 21% over the previous 66 MH/ *This summary is auto generated by a bot and not meant to replace reading the original article. As always, DYOR.*
tldr; Whales of ETH have taken advantage of the retracement happening in the market by accumulating more coins. ETH miners have the opportunity to increase the hashrate by 21% thanks to EVGA’s BIOS update of the Nvidia RTX 3080ti LHR graphics card. The power lock issue experienced during mining is expected to be solved by this update. *This summary is auto generated by a bot and not meant to replace reading the original article. As always, DYOR.*
I bought [BIOS](https://www.coingecko.com/coins/bios) for the first time last week and had to pay ETH gas fees to swap for it on Metamask. No way around it. It was my first time paying gas fees in over a year, but at $75 in gas on my swap it was high enough to make me complain haha
tldr; The EVGA 3080ti and inno3d have hidden power limits that prevent you from getting the 80-90mh/s you should be getting on an EVGA card. To get the full hash rate from these cards, you can flash a BIOS onto an Nvidia card. This can be done simply by installing GPU-Z from TechPowerUP, launching the program and hovering over BIOS Version. *This summary is auto generated by a bot and not meant to replace reading the original article. As always, DYOR.*
Resume What GPU is the best for mining? This is a very broad question. Are we talking about efficiency since the electricity price is high? Maybe about raw performance because we have solar panels and the power usage is not important for us? Is budget an obstacle? Some of the best-performing GPUs can cost more than $3,000 right now! It is also worth mentioning that the prices of GPUs fluctuate a lot at the time of writing. All of this combined means that the final answer will be different for everyone. The most used metric when it comes to buying mining GPUs is ROI (return on investment). How long does it take for the GPU to pay itself back? The lower the ROI, the better. Use this metric when deciding what GPU to buy. This metric is not always the most accurate, because daily profitability constantly changes and ROI time will most likely not be the same at the end. You can calculate the graphic card's ROI by following this formula: ROI = GPU price/(daily profit - electricity used). Another metric that you can use is the price per MH/s you are paying. This metric is straight forward and accurate. But it is important to compare only the hashrate of one algorithm and not to compare, for example DaggerHashimoto on GPU1 to KawPow on GPU2 as the results will be different. You can calculate the price per MH/s by following this formula: Price per MH/s = GPU price/hashrate on given algo. AMD or NVIDIA? NVIDIA seems to be more versatile than AMD, but that is not always the case. AMD can mine KAWPOW (Ravencoin) and DaggerHashimto (Ethereum) quite efficiently. While NVIDIA GPUs can generally efficiently mine all the coins like Ethereum, Ravencoin, Ergo, Conflux and others. Choosing NVIDIA gives you the ability to competitively mine more different algorithms compared to AMD. NVIDIA GPUs might be more “future-proof”. But AMD GPUs are not to be underestimated. There might be other future algorithms or coins that will be more profitable on AMD GPUs compared to NVIDIA ones. I have free electricity! If you are in a student dorm, electricity is not free, and be careful before moving your roommate out and setting up a 5kW mining farm in your dorm room. If you use solar or have really cheap electricity (less than ∼$0.06 per kWh). Then you can pick a more power-hungry and less power-effective GPU like the RTX 3090. NHOS Older or newer generation GPUs? Are you planning to resell the GPUs after a couple of years? In this case, we would suggest buying new generation GPUs like RTX 3000 or RX 6000 series since these cards will still be competitive in gaming after 3 to 4 years. If you are not planning to sell the GPUs and will only use them for mining, then we suggest buying the one with best ROI. Let that be the latest generation or older one like RX 5000 series and RTX 2000. We do not suggest buying GTX 1000 or RX 500 series or even older for mining. For example, GTX series is actually losing its performance over time due to increasing DAG size (GTX 1080 Ti used to hash at around 55 MH/s but can now barely achieve 45 MH/s). New or used GPU? Some might argue that used mining GPUs will degrade over time. But this is (generally) not true. If the GPU was kept clean, below 70°C and its fans were spinning under about 60% speed then the GPU can keep on hashing for years. If you come across a GPU with known history, then the risk of buying a bad GPU is low. Maybe GPU manufacturers should keep a history of temperatures and load in the BIOS just like cars keep track of distance traveled? How to calculate the electricity price? It is worth noting that the actual electricity price you pay per kWh might not be the same as it is written down on the invoice. In most countries, people pay for electricity + network charge + VAT. This means that your electricity price is not equal to the electricity price stated on the invoice. But you must divide the total invoice price by the kWh used in the past month. For example, Bob used 3000 kWh in November. The price per kWh is $0.06. The invoice should be $180 (3000*0,06), but the invoice total is $320. For Bob to get the actual price of the electricity, he should divide his total invoice amount ($320) by total kWh used (3000). This results in an electricity price of $0.106 per kWh. How to calculate ROI of mining GPUs? Use our Profitability Calculator to calculate the ROI of GPUs. CALCULATE PROFITABILITY Select a GPU from the dropdown menu and input additional information like your electricity price and GPU price in the text boxes. nicehash profitability calculator As always, feel free to join our subreddit or Discord server where you can ask questions to other community members and even to our staff. WRITTEN BY Marko Tarman Marko is NiceHash's Mining Hardware Specialist and Content Creator. He started mining in 2012, before the first ASICs came out. He went from GPU mining BTC, LTC to VTC, and even DOGE. His mining motto: "I have 99 problems, a bad elevator is all of them"
Checking out Metamask for the first time today. I see a SWAP button. Does a trading pair need to exist for me to swap? For example, I’m planning to buy some BIOS (it’s very low cap) and I want to know in advance what I am able to swap for it.
A compromised BIOS on a device could absolutely kill your security. A hardware wallet is a dedicated machine with a physical button to confirm transactions. You will not get that on any operating system you install on any other hardware.
Laptops die. Get one with no moving parts (except for fans), so SSD is a must. Removable Wifi/Bluetooth card, ditch it, so it doesn't auto connect to anything. While you're inside the laptop, stick an air tag and a Tile tag, might help if it's stolen. Newer ones have no ether port, get a USB to ether adapter as an extra step to make it harder to connect to the internet. No third party software except for wallets. Remove as many system components as possible (Paint, Skype, etc.). Back up your bitlocker keys, set a strong BIOS password. Imaging software (Acronis True Image or similar) that will boot off a USB stick. After every time you connect to the internet and then disconnect, create a hard drive image and save to an external drive. I'm sure there are more things that can be done if you're feeling extra paranoid.
I work in IT as a 3rd party vendor. One time when I was still young & new & green to my job, I was brought in to install a simple software update on this customer's server. They are a small financial management + loan office. The software requires a server reboot to install (to clear pending updates). Got the all clear, everyone saved their work, closed out of their files. Reboot the server. The server had full disk encryption so it needed an encryption key. They typed it for me, but the server was taking *forever* to reboot. After waiting over an hour of staring at a boot screen that was clearly not loading, I made the call to force shutdown and retry. They said this server normally takes a long time to power on, but that they weren't sure how long because it stays on for months/years continuously. After forcing the power off and restarting, it wouldn't boot. Whole disk got corrupted. Couldn't be recovered. I couldn't even get it to load past the BIOS to type in the encryption key. I go full panic mode and am sweating bullets. I couldn't recover it. I tried removing the hard drive and connecting it to this USB - IDE docker device that I have to do diagnostics and repairs, but since the whole thing was encrypted it was useless. There was no data that could be recovered. I lost *everything*. Their customer database, their entire file server, their records, I fucking wiped them out. It was just bad timing, really. The server was on its last legs and I was the unlucky soul who tried rebooting it. It was my damn fault for getting too impatient with the stuck boot screen and doing the power off (in my defense, I charge a high hourly rate, and they were getting antsy seeing me just sitting in a chair doing nothing staring at a frozen screen. Also in my defense, I'm just a vendor for this one piece of software; they had a separate tech firm that maintained this server and was responsible for the backups, and that firm did not have any backups being made). My ass was saved because one of the remote employees had a separate laptop with a file sync on it. I was able to recover a large portion of the files off his PC, but this employee had been out of the office for a couple weeks, so I wasn't able to recover something like the last 2 weeks of data. At least I got everything else back, but god. The horror of that fuckup still haunts me. They were in surprisingly kind spirits about it and were very patient with me, but I could tell they were fucking PISSED on the inside. I never left a job site with such shame. Never corrupt an encrypted hard drive.
Well for one when you buy 8 gaming PCs you’re buying a ton of extra equipment you don’t need for a mining rig… towers, mobos, ram, ssd, psu etc… Additionally, you’re expanding your operational costs dramatically, in that now you have to setup your mining software and BIOS configs on 8 different machines as opposed to one. Unless you plan on running some kind of virtual machine setup where the 8 boxes feed into one through a VM kind of setup. Also the resale value on GPUs is comparable to the resell value of a gaming rig. When you resell a gaming rig the majority of it’s resale value comes from it’s GPUs value.
No general purpose PC is safe for large amounts of Bitcoin / or any amount you don't want to lose. You have the normal OS level virus that should get detected by bitdefender. But there are also root level viruses that probably won't get detected (like running your OS in a VM except the VM is the virus, in full control of the machine). Then there are ME and BIOS level viruses/exploits that are very hard to detect. A hardware wallet is like $50. Or you can spend a bit more to get something like a coldcard that you don't even need to attach to the PC (it can read partially signed bitcoin transactions and finalise them).
> any true way to know for certain Glacier is as close as you can get, but is very expensive https://glacierprotocol.org/ Much cheaper, use TAILS. Then your risks are that your TAILS boot USB is safe, and that your PC's BIOS is safe. Also use TAILS as amnesiac (that's what the "A" stands for). Do not enable persistent storage
There seems to be a lot of confusion out there, what the advantage of a hardware wallet acually is. It is not, that it won't share the seed with anyone (including you). If that were the case and your device kicks the bucket (can always happen), then all your money would be gone. I think you wouldn't want that? :) The other claim that I often hear is that "the hardware wallet is not connected to the internet". That's also completely wrong. In some way or another, your device must communicate with the internet or else it wouldn't be able to send any transaction information out and it would only be an expensive paperweight. The real advantage of hardware wallets is the minimized attack surface for illegitimate access: Imagine your computer as a box that can let information go in and out. The paths that information can take depend on the software APIs (application programming interfaces) /communcation points that your computer offers. If there is no operating system, no firmware or any other type of software on a computer, then nothing can go in or out. It's maximally safe, but it's also not very useful. The firmware (BIOS, UEFI) offers several different methods / communication points for other software to communicate with your computer. Each of these methods contains a little programm that takes input, checks and interprets it and if everything is ok, it does something inside your computer (write something to memory, read sth from disk and returns the result, etc.) Your operating system (Windows, Linux, iOS) then comes on top and adds another mountain of additional communication points that also have their little program that's responsible for checking incomming input, interpreting it and then calling some of the firmware communication point to do something and maybe returning and output. On top of your operating system comes some application software (your internet browser, MS Word, PDF reader, ...) that also contain code to interpret documents and data that comes from outside (word document, some website html code, ...) and then turns it towards the operating system communication points so that the code does what it was intended to do. And here comes the crucial point: Each of the API / communication point programs might have a bug that results in data written somewhere where it shouldn't be. Or it might read data from somewhere where the API caller shouldn't have access to. The chance to find such a bug is approximately proportional to the lines of code, i.e. to the size of all programs on the computer. That means: operating system A is double the size of operating B? Then A also has probably twice as many bugs in it. A hardware wallet has a very low level operating system on it that contains exactly the methods and APIs that it needs to fulfill its purpose: receive BTC invoices (BTC amount + receiving address), show it on its integrated display and sign a transaction for these values if you push the hardware button. The code that's needed for these functionality can completely placed with a max. size of some kilobytes. So the likelihood of finding any critical bugs inside this code is massively smaller than to find such a bug on your desktop computer. Windows itself takes something around 80 GB, I think. Thats at least 300000 times more code that can contain bugs than the one on your usual hardware wallet.