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THETA Review // Guide For Beginners

Solana network - A Moderate Dive

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Algorand - Deep Dive

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Aptos, One of the "Heirs" of Meta's Blockchain Project Libra/Diem

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Why Proof of Stake (PoS) is not the solution to decentralised sustainable blockchains. How PoP can be the solution.

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New L1 Evm Compatible Blockchain

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A brand new blockchain destined for greatness has arrived!

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Cosmos (ATOM) Explained

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Echelon, Join the elite builders, creators, developers, and users of the upper Echelon of Blockchains.

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Knownsec Blockchain Lab | March Monthly Safety Report

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When a big whale is convincing other big boys why Cardano is a must-have: A Controversial Factsheet.

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Top 5 cryptocurrencies to invest in 2022

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Cryptolympics Game #2 - AVAX v ATOM

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BeFiT DeFi is here - Presale on Unicrypt -Governance Token - BFT - Low Marketcap - Audited- Team KYC verified- Presale Tomorrow

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BeFiT DeFi is here - Presale on Unicrypt -Governance Token - BFT - Low Marketcap - Audited- Team KYC verified- Presale Live 🔥

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BeFiT DeFi- Presale on Unicrypt -Governance Token - BFT - Low Marketcap - Audited- Team KYC verified- Presale Tomorrow

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BeFiT DeFi- Presale on Unicrypt -Gorvernance Token - BFT - Low Marketcap - Audited- Team KYC verifified

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Please FUD me on Cosmos. I'm a big fan right now and need some FUD to chew on.

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$NEAR | Near Protocol fundamental analysis | Long DD

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️| Ownership renounced 🚨| Rug-Proof | BIG Twitter calls soon 🌼

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️ | 🎇| Ownership renounced 🚨 | CoinTelegraph Article 🔥 | Rug-Proof | 💲 Pre CMC and CG

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️ | 🎇| Ownership renounced 🚨 | CoinTelegraph Article 🔥 | Rug-Proof | 💲 Pre CMC and CG

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️ | Newest gem on BSC |$BNB Dividend Token on BSC 📈 | TechRate Audit Soon 🚀 | Rug-Proof | 💲 Pre CMC and CG | Join now ‼️

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️ | Newest gem on BSC |$BNB Dividend Token on BSC 📈 | TechRate Audit Soon 🚀 | Rug-Proof | 💲 Pre CMC and CG | Join now ‼️

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️ | Low MC Stealth Launched | 💎 TechRate Audit Soon| 📈Strategic Marketing | 💲 Pre CMC and CG |

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️ | Low MC Stealth Launched | 💎 TechRate Audit Soon| 📈Strategic Marketing | 💲 Pre CMC and CG |

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️| Stealth Launched a few hours ago🩸| AMA’s coming up at multiple Tg groups 📢| Great marketing a head everyone joining 🚀 | Huge uptrend 🚨

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⚡️ BNBUP ☄️ | Fast growing community | $BNB Dividend Token 📈 | Based team 💲| Pre CMC and CG 🟥 | Join now and experience the and hype 🟪

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⚡️ BNBUP ☄️ | Read This 🔥| Renounced Ownership key💯 | Launched a few mins ago

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️ | Ownership renounced 🚨| Yahoo Article 🔥 |Whitepaper out soon 👑 For anyone who loves BNB and BSC

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☄️ BNBUP ☄️| Ownership renounced 🚨 | CoinTelegraph Article 🔥 | 💲 Pre CMC and CG🦾 For anyone who loves BNB and BSC ✍️

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⚡️ BNBUP ☄️| Ownership renounced 🚨 | Rug-Proof | For anyone who loves BNB and BSC ✍️

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Interoperability: Quant vs Nervos CKB

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ |Launchpad is going to be live on December 19th 🎇| Ownership renounced 🚨 | CoinTelegraph Article 🔥 | Rug-Proof | 💲 Pre CMC and CG

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ | Newest gem on BSC |25% $BUSD Dividend Token on BSC 📈 | TechRate Audit Soon 🚀 | Rug-Proof | 💲 Pre CMC and CG | Join now ‼️

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ | Low MC Stealth Launched | 💎 TechRate Audit Soon| 📈Strategic Marketing | 💲 Pre CMC and CG | ⚠️ Prize Draw, Casino and staking coming

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️| Stealth Launched a few hours ago🩸| AMA’s coming up at multiple Tg groups 📢| Great marketing a head everyone joining 🚀 | Huge uptrend 🚨

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ | Fast growing community | $BUSD Dividend Token 📈 | Based team 💲| Pre CMC and CG 🟥 | Join now and experience the and hype 🟪

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ | Read This 🔥| Renounced Ownership key💯 | Launched a couple of mins ago still early

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ | Ownership renounced 🚨| Yahoo Article 🔥 |Whitepaper out soon 👑 For anyone who loves BNB and BSC ✍️

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ | Cryptic_maestro call soon 🎇| Ownership renounced 🚨 | CoinTelegraph Article 🔥 | 💲 Pre CMC and CG🦾 For anyone who loves BNB and BSC ✍️

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☄️ BNBFanToken ☄️ | Cryptic_maestro call soon 🎇| Ownership renounced 🚨 | CoinTelegraph Article 🔥 | 💲 Pre CMC and CG🦾 For anyone who loves BNB and BSC ✍️

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For the newbies: List of common abbreviations and slang used in crypto trading and investing circles

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STOP comparing Solana's outages to Ethereum's

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Let's deep dive on USDT's and USDC's much cooler older brother the Terra ecosystem. Understanding the economic model behind Terra - an ecosystem which hopes to provide global, algorithmic stablecoins.

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$BFT erc20 token a tru hidden gem with giveaways and contests | Locked LP |Anti-Bot

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SifChain - Newly open DEX on Cosmos Network

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Please help a newbie!

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What's the point of Terra?

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Harmony ONE Fundamentals

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Summary of the top 50 crypto coins

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Whats everyone buying during this sale?

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ATOM hits all time high at $44

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Beginners Guide to Cosmos (ATOM)

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How do Blockchains stay secure? Consensus algorithms explained!

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CKB vs Quant: Interoperability champion?

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Can someone who is familiar with Ouroboros explain its fault tolerance threshold?

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Beekeepers Fight Token, just stealth launched! Low market Cap! Doxxed dev!

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Beekeepers Fight Token, just stealth launched! Low market Cap! Poocoin ads will live within 1 hours

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Beekeepers Fight Token, just stealth launched! Poocoins ads run soon!

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Beekeepers Fight Token! Just start marketing, buy now before you late.

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Beekeepers Fight Token! Based our daddy Elon Musk Tweet! Just launched, low market cap. Big potential to reach 100k MC!

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Beekeepers Fight Token, just stealth launched! Low market Cap, only 1k mc! We are not said if Elon tweet us. But we make this cause Elon tweet it!

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Beekeepers Fight Token, just stealth launched! We are not said if Elon tweet us. But we make this cause Elon tweet it!

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Harmony ONE - a deep dive

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Brazil National Team’s Fan Token Listing (BFT) on Bitci.com

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Solana vs Casper

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ATOM: the internet of blockchain

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Is SOL $18bn market cap a glimpse into CSPR's future?

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SOL hits $18bn market cap - how does it compare to CSPR?

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Beginners Guide to Solana

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Brief Guide to Solana

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Brief Guide to Solana

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Why Programmers and IT security experts have a natural aversion to blockchain technology

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Climate change is widespread, rapid, and intensifying, and some trends are now irreversible, so says the IPCC today. What are we, the crypto community going to do?

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Lachesis: Scalable Asynchronous BFT on DAG Streams

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Application based Blockchains: Addressing the Short Comings of Smart Contracts

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What is Solana? Beginners Guide

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Upbit terminates 24 digital assets

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Building Futures is doing a Massive giveaway back to their community. Backed by Tard coin and Banksy Crypto + more. Only 350k MC.

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Building Futures Token $BFT 300k MC. big potential, Charity Token! 1000+ holders, partnered with Kids in need.

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$BFT 354k mc, 1101 holders Charity token with 10k+ donated, just got their new website up, partnership with unicef in final stages, already partnered with kids in need.

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Building Futures Token 400k MC 1000+ holders Huge potential. Great cause. Join $BFT before it’s too late.

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Building Futures Token 500k MC 1000+ holders Huge potential. Great cause. Join $BFT before it’s too late.

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$PCC - Revolution Blockchain P2P Video Streaming Platform, Awesome Project with Low Marketcap ($600k). Get in Now!

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Building Futures Token 500k MC 1000+ holders Huge potential. Great cause. Join $BFT before it’s too late.

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$PCC - Low Marketcap (500k) New Native Blockchain Video Sharing Platform.

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BFT Building Futures Token has a bright future!

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$PCC - Next Generation Video Sharing Platform, New Native Block chain. AMA live session coming up.

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📚$BFT📚 Officially partnered with Kids in need foundation + 10k dono. 1100 holders, 500k MC 100x potential and Doxed devs.

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$PCC - Next Generation Video Sharing Platform. Higher Quality Streaming. Rewards for viewers

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$PCC - Peer Cast Coin - Native Utility Coin, Blockchain-based P2P Video Streaming Platform.

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DeFi Explained: A list of blockchains supporting DeFi

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📚$BFT📚 Officially partnered with Kids in need foundation + 10k dono. 1100 holders, 500k MC 100x potential and Doxed devs.

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📚$BFT📚 Officially partnered with Kids in need foundation + a 10k dono. 1100 holders, 500k MC 100x potential and Doxed devs.

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📚$BFT📚 Officially partnered with Kids in need foundation + a 10k dono. 1100 holders, 500k MC 100x potential and Doxed devs.

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$CNT - The Next Generation Video Sharing Platform. Decentralized P2P video delivery. A new native blockchain, Powered by users.

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The top 5 Cryptocurrencies that people tell you to buy versus the top 5 Cryptocurrencies that you should consider buying

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The byzantine general’s problem

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$BFT just donated 10,000 dollars live on stream and Officially partnered with Kids in need Foundation just 1 week after releasing.

Mentions

BFT Consensus instead of Nakamoto consensus makes it less resistant to Byzantine failures. In other words, while Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Cardano would require 51% of block producers (by node or by stake, respectively) to attack the network, on Algorand it requires only 33% to attack the network.

Mentions:#BFT

Most other cryptos have copied Ethereum, with many if the same weaknesses, but also in attempting to go fast have sacrificed decentralization. Also to accellerate usage they have VC funding which leads to poor token distributions and even greater concerns over centralization. They often also use BFT stle consensus which is less secure. If there is a crypto that is as secure and decentralized as Cardano, without Ethereums weaknesses and fast, Id be interested to see it.

Mentions:#BFT

Hedera was heavily shunned pretty early on. Coin Bureau made a video very early on telling everyone to steer clear of it and Charles Hoskinson was very vocal about hating it and went as far as calling it “patented garbage”a couple years ago. Which honestly was when I knew I made a good decision as Leemon’s twice his age with 100x the experience and wouldn’t say that about anyone or dare to use language like that. Leemon and Mance, the co-founders, were integral in the development of the U.S. missile defense system and Leemons one of the worlds most respected computer scientists. He’s the youngest so far to get a PHD from Carnegie Mellon. It’s also important to mention that hashgraph is aBFT, which is mathematically the highest level of security achievable. I believe only Nano has even claimed this, and Algorand is BFT. Hashgraph’s security (proven externally) is on par with the level of security required to handle classified U.S. intelligence - which also makes it quantum resistant.

Mentions:#BFT

>Proof of stake just abstracts out operational cost for capital cost, since validating and making blocks doesn't inherently require compute, only incentives to make attack asymmetrically expensive. What an absolute mind numbing way to basically say “hurr durr u technically dont hav to mine with pwoof of steak 🦧” It doesn’t “inherently” require computation the same way fiat money doesn’t need to be backed by gold, just don’t expect it appreciate or maintain it’s purchasing power. Work is valuable because money isn’t free, it doesn’t just rain from the sky you fucking moron. It’s more than just securing the network, it’s game theory. >USD is not "proof of stake" just because you can invest it, since it is not a framework to incentivize producing and validating blocks for BFT blockchain. Lol, never even said that. USD is proof of stake in the sense that only stakeholders can validate blocks/transactions **AND** govern the network. Do you not see the issue here? It completely defeats the purpose of a decentralized, distributed ledger if it’s only being validated and governed by the wealthy. That’s not fair distribution if only validators own the “real” copy of the ledger. It’s literally the same framework as fiat, doesn’t matter if it’s crypto or paper. And all this bullshit for what? So we can consume less electricity? Sure, PoS does exactly that, but so does storing your money in a wet paper bag.

Mentions:#BFT

You're a larping dipshit and I'm surprised no one has called out what utter nonsense what you said is. Proof of stake just abstracts out operational cost for capital cost, since validating and making blocks doesn't inherently require compute, only incentives to make attack asymmetrically expensive. USD is not "proof of stake" just because you can invest it, since it is not a framework to incentivize producing and validating blocks for BFT blockchain. Such a comparison is disingenuous chucklefuckery by people with vague definitions for PoS that they pulled out of their cavernous assholes.

Mentions:#BFT

More than 90% of my portfolio is BTC and ETH. But in terms of actually interacting with an ecosystem, not just holding, it's in the Cosmos ecosystem (more specifically IBC chains, eg. voting in various chain governance, updating liquidity in Osmosis Zone, etc). But folks shouldn't confuse the ATOM token with the Cosmos ecosystem. ATOM is just one of many L1 chains on the IBC layer 0. BNB, the largest L1 under ETH, is built on Tendermint BFT and Cosmos SDK. Terra was on the IBC. So is CRO. tl;dr ATOM is not the L1 of the Cosmos ecosystem.

Algorand is not a forkless variation of BFT. Anything that utilizes a byzantine agreement is already going to prefer safety to liveness, hence, they are all forkless unlike proof of work or alternatively, optimistic simple majority voting. These protocols have a multi step process in which state changes are broadcast and approved by the entire committee before those state changes are exposed to users. Algorand improves on protocols like HoneyBadger or PBFT by being scalable and stake-weighted, but they are all strongly consistent. The "nothing at stake" problem needs to be solved on Ethereum because the entire trust in the network becomes focused on a single entity for a period of time, and that entity can be bribed to misbehave on vote on multiple blocks. Validators that "witness" equivocations can then broadcast that to slash the offending nodes stake. However, if a supermajority of the network is malicious, they can simply decide to not observe that witness's testimony, so it doesn't really matter. That means "nothing at stake" is only solvable when the majority is honest, the problem space where solving the "nothing at stake" problem is necessary does not exist in Algorand, either the network is malicious as a whole, or its not. There is no need for slashing because in a compromised network you couldn't do it anyway, it relies on consensus to work in the first place. There are other problems with slashing: First, you could no longer ensure that tokens are safe. Your machine can reboot and accidentally vote on another block. Your machine can be hacked and forced to equivocate until all of your stake is gone too. Ethereum solved a problem that it created itself with Casper, nothing more.

Mentions:#BFT

So Oasis uses a delegate proof-of-stake and a modified version of Tendermint BFT for consensus. In general I would say that POS does have any more risk than POW of having this centralization problem. If anything it is more likely that POS will be more decentralized than a POW chain. This is because in order to even contribute to a POW chain you need some minimal threshold of mining equipment to have "your voice heard", however with a POS chain you can own even just a fraction of one token and stake it to any node of your choosing that aligns with your vision for you blockchain. I think it is fair to say there is still a risk of centralization occurring with POS, but if anything it is less risk than the centralization of miners on a POW chain. All ParaTimes are public and can be used by anyone. Because the Genetica partnership is built on Parcel which inherits the same trustless and high integrity nature that powers blockchain dapps today this is actually a massive improvement compared to current genome sequencing companies. Parcel enables users to set permissions on their data such as if they want to share the data, if so with who, and if so how long. This a massive quality of life improvement compared to a centralized company custodying your data for users who have no idea how or what their data might be used for and no way to monetize their own genome data for themselves. The same way bitcoin created a system for self-custody of money, Parcel and Oasis are creating a way to self-custody data.

Mentions:#BFT

> Algorand Consensus Protocol is a forkless variation of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) I'm open to suggestions. How would you describe it? For the Nothing-at-stake issue, I agree with your points, but those don't address the nothing-at-stake issue. However, it did remind of why Algorand is much less likely to need slashing than other PoS Sybil resistance protocols. How about this for a re-write? > Algorand doesn't slash for misbehavior, doesn't use lockup periods, and doesn't use delegators. Thus, it has a Nothing-at-Stake problem, which I consider a moderate security flaw. There are zero economic incentives for participation nodes to keep them honest, and the system requires trust that nodes are honest and altruistic, which goes against the principle of blockchains needing to be trustless. > On the other hand, Algorand uses PPoS instead of Delegated or pooled PoS, so the chances of any single validator growing very large due to delegation is much lower than for DPoS or pooled protocols like Ethereum. Pooled staking can grow to a significant portion of the total stake, like with [Lido and CEXs on Ethereum](https://beaconcha.in/pools).

Mentions:#BFT

I had very low hopes for this post after I read: >Algorand Consensus Protocol is a *forkless* *variation* of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) But then I read >No slashing and the Nothing-at-Stake issue: Algorand doesn't slash for for misbehavior, doesn't use lockup periods, and can't lose delegators. Thus, it has a pretty big Nothing-at-Stake problem, which I consider this a large security flaw. Doubly-so since there are zero economic incentives for participation nodes to keep them honest. It requires trust that nodes are honest and altruistic, which goes against the principle of blockchains needing to be trustless. No blockchain can operate under a majority of dishonest users, including ones that "slash". Algorand does not have a "Nothing At Stake Issue" because it doesn't ever select one node to finalize a block. In order for something bad to happen, the majority of users must be malicious. Algorand achieves better security properties than Ethereum because the latter must resort to slashing. That's called a reactive measure, and it doesn't prevent any attack if the validator doesn't care about their balance.

Mentions:#BFT

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

Define quality in this instance other than strong community, doxxed devs, price movement, tokenomics (whatever that meant), and novelty. LACChain has a tab called quantum resistance, yet there's nothing inside in the tab, literally. Really doubt that it has implemented [DID](https://www.w3.org/TR/did-use-cases/) as described in the link. EBSI is, to the best of my knowledge (that seems you have, but of course the internet expects you to DYOR even though the burden of proof should be on the one proclaiming their quality), are quite untested. Ownera and Fnality from what it looks like seemed to be API for transaction. Good on paper, untested in reality. Of course, looking good is very easy in cyrpto sphere. Project Ion is basically just a DID built on top of Bitcoin for layer 2; I have yet to hear of this or other microservices utilizing Project Ion as their base. Lightning Network was there, probably would be good for the undetermined future. Isn't SDX is stocks on blockchain? I mean, I'm checking it's technology or whatever, seemed the GitHub page for OpenVASP was updated 2 years ago... not sure if it's still there or even relevant. Redbelly Blockchain (RBBC) is the one that is *probably* the one coming closest to quality because of its resemblance to the one of the newly established coin with cult-following: Algorand. The difference is that the blockchain on RBBC seemed to use a 'modified BFT' seemed to be specifically for Australian CBDC. Not sure if the [same RBBC is mentioned in this article or not.](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9519440) But, I'd assume it is. Is it really that huge of an innovation? While they certainly allege to do things with better than the technology that they based themselves off (at least from the limited documentation they have provided), Their innovation is geographical at very best (LACChain) and pretty much rehashes Remember Arbitrum? Sequencer issues and Odyssey L2 issues that makes the gas fees higher than L1. Even though it has been relatively 'hyped.' Remember Substratum? Hyped at the first start, got faded into obscurity until there's nearly zero updates at the moment despite the ICO burned away $13 million. How about Chia with its new "approach" to mining for whatever reason? The point is clear: the blockchain project seemed quality on paper until proven otherwise. Hell, let's just go out-of-topic a little bit and let's see 'community-driven' coin such as Doge and Shiba Inu. By all means, they are just there for jokes and they are jokes... their staying power however is no joke (partially thanks to those who held for no reason because why not). Hence, the hype far outpaces the innovation. I'll wait for you to compile couple hundreds of projects that you thought high quality, but if they have no users, they are not going anywhere. That's the catch-22, without users to "feel" the value being given, innovation can only be said to exist on paper while extremely high usage can and will open up some weak spots on the blockchain that would have been otherwise not detected with even with the allegedly 1000 VM across 3 machine types and "lol rug pull" influx of comments that will come because of the discrepancy between the hype and the said innovation.

You don't need past epochs' data because Solana has BFT consensus and the concept of finality, historical data storage requirements is something that will disappear from most blockchains, Ethereum is literally building towards that functionality, Cardano will one day as well (perhaps they need a paper first and will be late by 5 years as always). Also provide accurate data, there are 1900 validators on Solana and a total of 3400 full nodes, not 10.

Mentions:#BFT

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

>first cardano has a security threshold of 50% unlike avax and cosmos which use regular BFT and only have a 32% security thresho Wrong. Cardano is subject to full fledged 51% attacks. Any group composing 50+% of consensus can write false blocks. Chains that use BFT cannot be 51% attacked; the same attack requires 67% to write bad blocks in BFT. 32% attacks can only delay consensus (at which point the nodes would vote to fork and ignore all the attacker's stake, because unlike ADA, ATOM and AVAX have on chain governance and can make decentralized decisions). >cardano still has more independent entities minting blocks than both of them That's a completely irrelevant marketing tagline. Cardano's consensus is controlled by fewer entities than even Cosmo's is (which is insane because Cosmos only has 175 validators). Doesn't matter if cardano had 10 million pools as long as 15 or fewer entities continue to control the majority of the stake and can reject every block the other 10 million pools write. >also looking at the pool graph on cardano the biggest segment of that graph are "Single Pool Operators" - and it's LEGIT False. It's not legit. For example, we know that for several months "Single Pool Operators" included Coinbase's approx. 8.72% of all staked Cardano, and God knows how many other hidden multipools (cardano is the only chain where dividing and hiding pool ownership costs the same as declaring it). The only reason we know those pools are Coinbase is because they appeared immediately before Coinbase enabled ADA staking (and they didn't try very hard to hide). You're right that adapools now acknowledges Coinbase, and I didn't notice they moved it out of the SPOs. My point stands though. Cardano is the only chain where Coinbase's stake was split up and hidden in multiple pools, because there is no additional cost to doing that, and there is no benefit to Coinbase advertising their pools. All Cardano's stake limits do is incentivize multipool operators to hide among SPOs. On other chains that would cost extra money. It's a dumb design that does nothing for security, but pumps their metrics (why do you think cardano has so many incomplete wallets?). Just like their unlocked staking that let's whales remove security on a whim anytime they want to pump and dump coins. They can buy every dip and sell every high and still get paid to "secure" the network in between. It's a low security design that most chains chose not to copy. Same goes for their problem with validators writing empty blocks to collect rewards. Nothing about their chain is more decentralized, more secure, or better tested than other chains. It's all marketing rhetoric from IOHK.

1- cardano "transactions" can include a hundred transactions within them without smart contracts, TPS is a useless measure between accounts and eutxo blockchains, it's only useful for compare accounts based chains to other accounts base chains as only then does it mean the same thing 2- fees aren't suppose to be static, cardano is still under development and fees will adjust with price fluctuations otherwise you have the same problem as eth, the point is that this fee adjustment feature is yet to be implemented, it was set at .17 ADA per transactions when ADA was around 4c - the lag in the development for this feature is by design, it's to increase the ecosystems treasury for future sustainability 3- meh, cardano IS bleeding edge tech and continues to be, some examples - liquid staking, non custodial staking, 50% security threshold compared to all other BFT PoS coins which are only 32%, paying transaction fees in non ADA coins, recovery from spikes of dishonest majority like bitcoin, cardano is light years ahead, read a bit mate 4- lol, now who is in the cult 5- double lol - cultish nonsense continues isn't it ironic, those that talk about others being in a cult seem to be the ones in the cult, dominated by ignorance inspired groupthink and oblivious at the same time, i guess that's a feature

Mentions:#ADA#BFT

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cosmos Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Shippior which won 2nd place in the Cosmos Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > Strictly speaking, [Cosmos](https://v1.cosmos.network/intro) (ticker = ATOM) is a decentralized network of independent parallel Proof-of-Stake blockchains, each powered by BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint consensus. It is seen as a network of blockchains that can scale and communicate with each other. Together with Polkadot it is seen as one of the first Generation 3 blockchains. > > The Cosmos hub is supposed to be the center of the Cosmos network and it allows the other blockchains that connect to it to use its security. Therefore other chains can focus on things they do best. This has spawned other chains focusing on privacy (Secret Network), NFTs (Stargaze) or memecoins (Chihuahua Chain). > > Cosmos operates through the [IBC] (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYuTYykRhH4) (Inter-Blockchain Communication) Protocol. Blockchains that adopt this protocol are easy to link within the network and can then communicate with each other. This allows new blockchains to be easily integrated with the network and be adopted by new users. A good example of this is the rapid growing DEX [Osmosis](app.osmosis.zone). New tokens are integrated rapidly due to being integrated rapidly and the DEX allows people to start getting the tokens quickly after launch, in addition to the many [airdops](www.reddit.com/r/cosmosairdrops) that are currently happening. > > Cosmos has fully functioning on-chain governance. Every proposal has go through voting. In voting a validator votes for all its delegators. A delegator however always has the opportunity to overwrite the vote of their validator by voting on a proposal themselves. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/qk4yl2/coin_inquiries_round_cosmos_proarguments_november/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cosmos) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

Mentions:#ATOM#BFT#DEX

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cosmos Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Shippior which won 2nd place in the Cosmos Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > Strictly speaking, [Cosmos](https://v1.cosmos.network/intro) (ticker = ATOM) is a decentralized network of independent parallel Proof-of-Stake blockchains, each powered by BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint consensus. It is seen as a network of blockchains that can scale and communicate with each other. Together with Polkadot it is seen as one of the first Generation 3 blockchains. > > The Cosmos hub is supposed to be the center of the Cosmos network and it allows the other blockchains that connect to it to use its security. Therefore other chains can focus on things they do best. This has spawned other chains focusing on privacy (Secret Network), NFTs (Stargaze) or memecoins (Chihuahua Chain). > > Cosmos operates through the [IBC] (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYuTYykRhH4) (Inter-Blockchain Communication) Protocol. Blockchains that adopt this protocol are easy to link within the network and can then communicate with each other. This allows new blockchains to be easily integrated with the network and be adopted by new users. A good example of this is the rapid growing DEX [Osmosis](app.osmosis.zone). New tokens are integrated rapidly due to being integrated rapidly and the DEX allows people to start getting the tokens quickly after launch, in addition to the many [airdops](www.reddit.com/r/cosmosairdrops) that are currently happening. > > Cosmos has fully functioning on-chain governance. Every proposal has go through voting. In voting a validator votes for all its delegators. A delegator however always has the opportunity to overwrite the vote of their validator by voting on a proposal themselves. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/qk4yl2/coin_inquiries_round_cosmos_proarguments_november/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cosmos) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

Mentions:#ATOM#BFT#DEX

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cosmos Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Shippior which won 2nd place in the Cosmos Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > Strictly speaking, [Cosmos](https://v1.cosmos.network/intro) (ticker = ATOM) is a decentralized network of independent parallel Proof-of-Stake blockchains, each powered by BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint consensus. It is seen as a network of blockchains that can scale and communicate with each other. Together with Polkadot it is seen as one of the first Generation 3 blockchains. > > The Cosmos hub is supposed to be the center of the Cosmos network and it allows the other blockchains that connect to it to use its security. Therefore other chains can focus on things they do best. This has spawned other chains focusing on privacy (Secret Network), NFTs (Stargaze) or memecoins (Chihuahua Chain). > > Cosmos operates through the [IBC] (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYuTYykRhH4) (Inter-Blockchain Communication) Protocol. Blockchains that adopt this protocol are easy to link within the network and can then communicate with each other. This allows new blockchains to be easily integrated with the network and be adopted by new users. A good example of this is the rapid growing DEX [Osmosis](app.osmosis.zone). New tokens are integrated rapidly due to being integrated rapidly and the DEX allows people to start getting the tokens quickly after launch, in addition to the many [airdops](www.reddit.com/r/cosmosairdrops) that are currently happening. > > Cosmos has fully functioning on-chain governance. Every proposal has go through voting. In voting a validator votes for all its delegators. A delegator however always has the opportunity to overwrite the vote of their validator by voting on a proposal themselves. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/qk4yl2/coin_inquiries_round_cosmos_proarguments_november/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cosmos) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

Mentions:#ATOM#BFT#DEX

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

Radix is like all BFT protocols: pulls you in early with impressive parameter scaling, speeds, and finality (which is an obvious 101 tradeoff v nakamoto longest chain consensus protocols) but it takes you a couple months of learning crypto before you realize the network can't scale with mass adoption without economy-of-scale costs to run and operate nodes/validators shutting out almost everyone from network participation resulting in inevitable centralization.

Mentions:#BFT

Some really interesting and innovative projects here. Nervos Network (CKB) I'm very familiar with so I can add that it's a multi-layered smart contract platform that has a base layer focused on security and decentralization with a VM that is highly cryptoagnostic which makes it a high level of flexibility, making it well suited for interoperability. Layer 2 is where the high tps scaling chains are (Godwoken and Axon) and they leverage layer 1's security. Optimistic rollups, BFT, zkRollups etc Plus the base layer token CKB represents on chain state which is required for anything stored on chain (1byte=1 ckb) such as smart contracts, nfts, address or account information etc. So adoption drives scarcity and increased value of L1.

Mentions:#CKB#BFT

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cosmos Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Shippior which won 2nd place in the Cosmos Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > Strictly speaking, [Cosmos](https://v1.cosmos.network/intro) (ticker = ATOM) is a decentralized network of independent parallel Proof-of-Stake blockchains, each powered by BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint consensus. It is seen as a network of blockchains that can scale and communicate with each other. Together with Polkadot it is seen as one of the first Generation 3 blockchains. > > The Cosmos hub is supposed to be the center of the Cosmos network and it allows the other blockchains that connect to it to use its security. Therefore other chains can focus on things they do best. This has spawned other chains focusing on privacy (Secret Network), NFTs (Stargaze) or memecoins (Chihuahua Chain). > > Cosmos operates through the [IBC] (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYuTYykRhH4) (Inter-Blockchain Communication) Protocol. Blockchains that adopt this protocol are easy to link within the network and can then communicate with each other. This allows new blockchains to be easily integrated with the network and be adopted by new users. A good example of this is the rapid growing DEX [Osmosis](app.osmosis.zone). New tokens are integrated rapidly due to being integrated rapidly and the DEX allows people to start getting the tokens quickly after launch, in addition to the many [airdops](www.reddit.com/r/cosmosairdrops) that are currently happening. > > Cosmos has fully functioning on-chain governance. Every proposal has go through voting. In voting a validator votes for all its delegators. A delegator however always has the opportunity to overwrite the vote of their validator by voting on a proposal themselves. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/qk4yl2/coin_inquiries_round_cosmos_proarguments_november/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cosmos) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

Mentions:#ATOM#BFT#DEX

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

To define blockchain technology. I'll start you off: Blockchain is a buzzword for old tech. Merkle tree (1979) + distributed db (1987) + BFT (1982) Bitcoin’s combo of hashcash (1997) with difficulty adjustment and nakamoto consensus (2008) resulted in innovation of digital scarcity. Other projects = marketing + insider enrichment

Mentions:#BFT

Interesting you mention that since Cardano's Ouroboros is somewhat of a Frankenstein of PoW and PoS. It's one of the few PoS networks that uses Nakamoto consensus whereas most other PoS networks use a deterministic BFT.

Mentions:#BFT

Interesting explanation! Thanks. Would you care to comment on the LN (a second layer for btc). Bitcoin proponents claim to have solved the blockchain trillema via the LN. Apparantely it is estimated that it could process millions of transactions per second while also maintaining the security of L1 and the decentralisation that comes with it. Although especially the last point is questionable (as some centralisation happens on L2). If true - then it seems that through the workings of two layers, this BFT system is even superior than a non BFT system, in terms of number of information exchanged.

Mentions:#LN#BFT

Dunno if you care about technical stuff but a byzantine fault is a situation in a distributed system in which a node has an error (a “fault”) and the nature of the error is so disruptive to the overall system that it is indistinguishable from if the node was maliciously trying to attack your system. Basically if a node does the worst thing possible at the worst time. Byzantine fault tolerant systems can keep operating correctly even when X% of nodes are maliciously trying to bring the system down/take over. For blockchains simple BFT isn’t enough because of the sybil problem (it’s nice to be able to survive 51% of nodes being malicious, but it’s not gonna help if I can simply create a billion nodes for free), and proof of work is a solution to that issue. The number of messages needed to be exchanged in a BFT system is mathematically must be more than a non-BFT distributed system. So you can never have decentralization (zero trust networks) be as efficient as having trusted nodes. As for your other questions, what if it doesn’t matter/what if there are other benefits etc., I don’t have anything to say to that, I am just sharing some distributed systems knowledge.

Mentions:#BFT

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

Decentralisation is about who is validating transactions and maintaining the distributed ledger. The Nakamoto coefficient is an attempt to quantify decentralisation, however it oversimplifies things. Two large oversights are that it doesn’t consider different BFT thresholds and doesn’t consider subsystems (clients, nodes, developers). Essentially diversity is important for decentralisation - a blockchain with multiple clients is always going to be more decentralised than a blockchain who derive their code base from one client team. Decentralisation can also include coin distribution, particularly pertinent when comparing to PoS chains with on chain governance and initial distributions skewed towards insiders. Ethereum excels in respect of both of these. And PoS offers more security for the same cost. So if your security budget is the same, then PoS will by definition be more secure. This is derived from how much it costs to attack the network in terms of resources. It’s also much harder to sustain an attack under PoS, and you can recover from the attack much faster. And yes - fee revenue is quite simply a measure of how willing people are to use a network. Number of transactions is largely irrelevant because (a) you would expect more transactions with lower fees, and (b) these will likely be for lower economic value. Whether the fee paid is attributed to one transaction or many is largely irrelevant as it represents the price someone is willing to pay to use the network.

Mentions:#BFT
r/BitcoinSee Comment

The byzantine analogy was discussed in the 70s and solutions in the form of byzantine fault tolerance were available by the 80s. Bitcoin is a novel application of BFT but not its origin; Satoshi didn’t solve it, and it was certainly not considered “unsolvable.”

Mentions:#BFT

#Cardano Pro-Arguments Below is an argument written by Maleficent_Plankton which won 1st place in the Cardano Pro-Arguments topic for a prior [Cointest](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_policy) round. > ###**Background** > > It has been half a year for Cardano ever since the Alonzo (smart contract) release, which revealed that it's very difficult to build a DEX for eUXTO transactions instead of account transactions. Even after the release of SundaeSwap and MinSwap, we've seen issues for DEX development. I'm still following the Cardano subreddit, and I think it's better now since its members are much less cultish/bullish than before. > > On the [Cardano development roadmap](https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/), there's only scaling (Basho) and governance (Voltaire) left, and Cardano's followers are much less excited about those updates as they were for the smart contracts. > > ###**Cardano Pros** > > **General**: > > * Uses a Proof of Stake consensus (Ouroboros), so it uses less energy than PoW coins. > * Cardano Transactions fees are currently about $0.40 - 0.50 USD as of [Mar 2022](https://messari.io/asset/cardano/chart/txn-fee-avg), and it's been around this range for a year now. They are cheaper than BTC transaction fees of [$2-4 USD](https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/bitcoin-transactionfees.html#1y) and much cheaper than basic Ethereum transaction fees of $2-15 USD (depending on whether it's native Ethereum or ERC-20). > * ADA's current transaction speed is about 8 TPS (excluding smart contracts, which currently are causing major congestion), which can [scale to 257 TPS](https://coinmarketcap.com/alexandria/article/a-deep-dive-into-cardano) without any major updates. Top scaling is expected to be [1000 TPS](https://cardanians-io.medium.com/hydra-cardano-scalability-solution-36b05ddc91cf) without Hydra Layer 2 scaling with major updates, but only the future will tell. > > **Security** > > * Cardano's Ouroboros is a bit different than most Proof of Stake blockchains in that it uses Nakamoto consensus instead of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), so it's more similar to Bitcoin than the Ethereum PoS beacon chain in that aspect. As of Feb 2021, the Minimum Attack Vector (MAV) for Cardano currently requires collusion between 29 different staking pools. In terms of this metric, that's way more secure than Bitcoin, which requires collusion between 5-7 mining pools. (Of course, that's assuming these pools are not secretly run by the same entities.) > > **Staking**: > > * Its Yoroi hot wallet is super easy to use and has DPoS staking built-in. I find its design much more intuitive to use than Metamask for Ethereum. Staking is [non-custodial](https://staking.staked.us/cardano-staking), so stakers don't have to worry about handing over their coins to a centralized platform like with ETH 2.0. Governance is also directly given to stakers instead of pools, leading to higher decentralization. > * US Chair of the SEC, Gary Gensler, said [in Sept 2021](https://www.washingtonpost.com/washington-post-live/2021/09/21/transcript-path-forward-cryptocurrency-with-gary-gensler/) that he may go after staking platforms. This could limit centralized ETH 2.0 staking but not decentralized DPoS systems like Cardano's staking. > * There is no punishing slashing on staking, so it's safer for risk-adverse stakers. Instead, bad nodes receive reduced rewards (the downside is that there are more bad staking pools). Also, staking reward decreases when the pool size increases, so there is an incentive to join smaller pools, leading to more decentralization despite the DPoS model. > > **Smart Contracts**: > > * The Smart Contract in Alonzo (Plutus) [is deterministic](https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2021/09/06/no-surprises-transaction-validation-on-cardano/) in the sense that its fees are known ahead of time unlike in Ethereum. > * Plutus smart contract can also be simulated ahead of time, giving better estimates than Solidity. You'll know whether it'll succeed or fail before making the transaction. It is also easier to check for security flaws. > * Cardano supports [native tokens](https://developers.cardano.org/docs/native-tokens/) without the need for smart contracts. This avoids the high $20+ gas fees when transferring or swapping ERC-20 token. > * Swaps generally take anywhere between 30 seconds to a couple of minutes, which is lot faster than most Ethereum swaps, which can take an hour. (People still complain about congestion though.) > > **Simple to do Batch Transactions**: > > * Cardano uses eUXTO transactions, so it's easy to batch [Multi-to-multi transfers](https://adapools.org/transactions/e586c6340ee9e60a6c64f447feffe5f89bdabc7741666ecaa681081957938f56) and [bundled transactions](https://adapools.org/transactions/8391e6df99d8c08a316f88461a7858ecd3173a69f916a03a47fa10420f5bedbd) with dozens of inputs and outputs. The fee for each of these was under one USD. In comparison, [here's a transaction](https://etherscan.io/tx/0x0fe2542079644e107cbf13690eb9c2c65963ccb79089ff96bfaf8dced2331c92) on the Ethereum blockchain with similar numbers of inputs and outputs that's currently $5500 in USD in fees (though it was a whopping $23k at the time of transaction). > > > Disclosure: I own a tiny bit of ADA. ***** Would you like to learn more? [Click here](/r/CointestOfficial/comments/ru2mfx/top_10_cardano_proarguments_january_2022/) to be taken to the original topic-thread or you can scan through the [Cointest archive](/r/CointestOfficial/wiki/cointest_archive#wiki_Cardano_(blockchain_platform\)) to find arguments on this topic in other rounds.

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